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为什么看起来是歧视的最后堡垒
话题: 歧视, 性别, 性别歧视 页数: 5(1746字) 发布时间: 2010年11月25日
为什么看起来是歧视的最后堡垒

在19世纪,许多美国城市禁止“难看”的个人露面。芝加哥条例通常是这样的:“任何人患病,残废,肢体残缺或以任何方式变形,以致成为难看或令人作呕的对象……不得……以……的惩罚公开露面。每项违法行为将被罚款1美元。”尽管政府不再从事这种歧视的工作,但它仍然允许企业,学校和其他组织放任自己的偏见。在过去的半个世纪中,美国扩大了针对歧视的保护范围,包括种族,宗教,性别,年龄,残疾以及在越来越多的司法管辖区中的性取向。但是,除了一个州和六个城市和县以外,在所有情况下,基于外观的偏见仍然是完全允许的。在全国其他地区,相貌是可接受的偏执的最后堡垒。我们都知道外观很重要,但是偏见的代价可能比我们通常认为的要高。 1994年在得克萨斯州,一名肥胖妇女被拒绝当公共汽车司机,原因是公司的一名医生在看着她(用他的话说“在大厅里走来走去”)后认为自己不胜任这项工作。正如公司后来声称的那样,他没有进行任何敏捷性测试来确定她是否不适合在发生事故时疏散公共汽车。

In New Jersey in 2005, one of the Borgata Hotel Casino's "Borgata babe" cocktail waitresses went from a Size 4 to a Size 6 because of a thyroid condition. When the waitress, whose contract required her to keep an "an hourglass figure" that was "height and weight appropriate," requested a larger uniform, she was turned down. "Borgata babes don't go up in size," she was told. (Unless, the waitress noted, they have breast implants, which the casino happily accommodated with paid medical leave and a bigger bustier.) And in California in 2001, Jennifer Portnick, a 240-pound aerobics instructor, was denied a franchise by Jazzercise, a national fitness chain. Jazzercise explained that its image demanded instructors who are "fit" and "toned." But Portnick was both: She worked out six days a week, taught back-to-back classes and had no shortage of willing students. Such cases are common. In a survey by the National Association to Advance Fat Acceptance, 62 percent of its overweight female members and 42 percent of its overweight male members said they had been turned down for a job because of their weight. And it isn't just weight that's at issue; it's appearance overall. According to a national poll by the Employment Law Alliance in 2005, 16 percent of workers reported being victims of appearance discrimination more generally -- a figure comparable to the percentage who in other surveys say they have experienced sex or race discrimination. Conventional wisdom holds that beauty is in the eye of the beholder, but most beholders tend to agree on what is beautiful. A number of researchers have independently found that, when people are asked to rate an individual's

attractiveness, their responses are quite consistent, even across race, sex, age, class and cultural background. Facial symmetry and unblemished skin are universally admired. Men get a bump for height, women are favored if they have hourglass figures, and racial minorities get points for light skin color, European facial characteristics and conventionally "white" hairstyles. Yale's Kelly Brownell and Rebecca Puhl and Harvard's Nancy Etcoff have each reviewed hundreds of studies on the impact of appearance. Etcoff finds that unattractive people are less likely than their attractive peers to be viewed as intelligent, likable and good. Brownell and Puhl have documented that overweight individuals consistently suffer disadvantages at school, at work and beyond. Among the key findings of a quarter-century's worth of research: Unattractive people are less likely to be hired...
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