诡异震惊世界未解之谜


肾脏血液出版社

DOI:10.1159 / 000510565收到:2020年3月10日接受:2020年7月9日在线发布:2020年9月30日

? 2020 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel www.karger.com/kbr

This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Interna-tional License (CC BY) (/Services/OpenAccessLicense). Usage, derivative works and distribution are permitted provided that proper credit is given to the author and the original publisher.

研究文章

骨转化生物标记物在有或没有地诺单抗的情况下评估肾脏移植后骨矿物质密度的预测能力:POSTOP研究的事后分析

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兰贾·萨利赫(Lanja Saleh d)

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瑞士苏黎世苏黎世大学医院肾脏科; bgraf Biostatistics,瑞士温特图尔; c瑞士苏黎世大学医院风湿病科; d瑞士苏黎世大学医院和苏黎世大学临床化学研究所a

Keywords Kidney transplantation · Bone mineral metabolism · Denosumab · Biomarkers of bone turnover Abstract Background: Low bone mineral density (BMD) represents a major risk factor for bone fractures in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) as well as after kidney transplantation. However, modalities to solidly predict patients at fracture risk are yet to be defined. Better understanding of bone turnover biomarkers (BTMs) may close this diagnostic gap. This study strives to correlate BTMs to BMD in kidney transplant recipients. Methods: Changes in BTMs – procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (P1NP), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP), β-isomer of the C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen, and urine deoxypyridinoline/Cr – at the time of transplant and 3 months were correlated to changes in BMD measured by dualenergy X-ray absorptiometry at the time of transplant, 6, and 12 months, respectively. Half of the collective was treated with denosumab twice yearly in addition to the standard treatment with calcium and vitamin D. Results: Changes in bone formation markers BSAP and P1NP within 3 months showed a significant negative correlation to changes in BMD at the hip within 6 months in denosumab-na?ve patients. This correlation was abrogated by denosumab treatment. Conclusions: Changes in BSAP and P1NP showed promise in short-term prediction Marco Bonani Division of Nephrology, University Hospital Zurich R?mistrasse 100 CH–8091 Zurich (Switzerland) marco.bonani @ usz.ch

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Kidney Blood Press Res

DOI:10.1159 / 000510565

? 2020 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel www.karger.com/kbr

Heimgartner等人:肾脏移植后骨转换的生物标志物可预测BMD

of BMD. We suggest further trials expanding on the knowledge of these BTMs with assessment of fracture risk, sequential measurements of BTMs within the first 6 months, and the additional use of computed tomography to assess BMD. ? 2020 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

介绍

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is accompanied by relevant changes in bone and mineral metabolism which can lead to renal osteodystrophy [1]. The high prevalence of bone disease in patients with CKD implicates that kidney transplant candidates often present with osteopenia or osteoporosis. The already low bone mineral density (BMD) may further decrease after transplantation, especially in the first year after transplantation and mainly because of glucocorticoids. They have a powerful detrimental effect on the skeleton by several mechanisms and are still a main pillar of immunosuppression after transplantation [2]. In addition, pre- and posttransplant hyperparathyroidism leads to a mechanical compromise of the bone [3]. Therapeutic amelioration of bone loss after kidney transplantation includes the supplementation of calcium and vitamin D [4, 5]. Another controversially discussed treatment constitutes bisphosphonates, which indeed improve bone loss, but are giving cause to several concerns, including nephrotoxicity. Controversial data on fracture prevention in renal transplant recipients and the occurrence of atypical fractures in these patients impede their widespread application [6–14]. The RANKL antibody denosumab represents a newer strategy in preventing posttransplant bone loss, which had superior efficacy in improving BMD and preventing fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis as compared to bisphosphonates [15, 16]. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan represents the gold standard to diagnose osteoporosis and its severity, but it suffers from methodological limitations [17]. In contrast, bone turnover biomarkers (BTMs) can possibly identify patients with rapid bone loss [18, 19] and may assist in monitoring treatment efficacy before BMD decline becomes obvious by DXA. Ability of early BMD loss recognition with establishment of timely treatment may further reinforce patient compliance. Nevertheless, current expert consensus states that BTMs should not guide BMD surveillance solely but may monitor osteoporosis treatment efficacy. Widespread application is hampered by their biological variability [20–23] and controversial data of fracture prediction [24]. In the POSTOP trial by Bonani et al. [25], a total of 4 BTMs apart from the parathyroid hormone (PTH) were studied: 2 markers of bone formation, procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (P1NP) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP), and 2 markers of bone resorption, β-isomer of the C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (β-CTX), and urine deoxypyridinoline/Cr (DPD). BTMs are not specific for a single bone disease and reflect the entire skeleton [26]. P1NP is a specific by-product of active osteoblasts. The extension peptide P1NP is cleaved by enzymes at the end of the procollagen molecule during the formation of bone matrix [23]. It has been recommended by the Bone Marker Standards Working Group because of its low inter-individual variability [23] and its stability in serum at room temperature [27]. BSAP on the other hand is a specific product of bone osteoblasts as well but reflects enzymatic activity. Osteoid mineralization is mediated by alkaline phosphatase secreted by osteoblasts [23]. Most of the bone resorption markers are degradation products of bone collagen. The pyridinium cross-links DPD are a by-product during bone maturation and are released during the bone resorption process. The same holds true for the peptide β-CTX of the type I collagen molecule [23]. β-CTX surfaced as the marker of choice, although it has a large circadian vari-

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诡异震惊世界未解之谜 Kidney Blood Press Res

DOI:10.1159 / 000510565

? 2020 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel www.karger.com/kbr

Heimgartner等人:肾脏移植后骨转换的生物标志物可预测BMD

ation with the requirement of a morning fasting blood sample for accurate interpretation [23, 28]. The POSTOP study group was able to show an increase in BMD measured by DXA after twice-yearly denosumab in the first year after kidney transplantation. Moreover, a significant decrease of all studied BTMs was documented in the denosumab group [25]. This post hoc analysis of the POSTOP trial aims to investigate whether the changes in the BMD at the lumbar spine and total hip at 6 and 12 months can be predicted by the changes in BTMs at 3 months. Materials and Methods

Patients and Study Design This study is a post hoc analysis of the POSTOP trial by Bonani et al. [25] (Effect of TwiceYearly Denosumab on Prevention of Bone Mineral Density Loss in De Novo Kidney Transplant Recipients: a Randomized Controlled Trial). The POSTOP trial was a 1-year prospective singlecenter, randomized, parallel-group, open-label clinical trial in de novo kidney transplant recipients. The study was approved by the local ethics steering committee, conformed to the Declaration of Helsinki and Istanbul, and has been registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01377467). Included patients were adult woman and man with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Transplantation took place up to 28 days previously with a kidney allograft and patients were treated with standard immunosuppression, that is, calcineurin antagonist, mycophenolate, and corticosteroids. Patients had to be excluded if there was evidence of a poor or unstable graft function (Cr >200 μmol/L), severe osteoporosis (T-score below ?4.0), severe hyper or hypoparathyroidism (iPTH >800或

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肾脏血液出版社 DOI:10.1159 / 000510565收到:2020年3月10日接受:2020年7月9日在线发布:2020年9月30日 ? 2020 The Author...
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