保罗 马森

制度种族主义和不平等
话题: 非裔美国人, 种族主义 页数: 14(4643字) 发布时间: 2016年3月18日
?Introduction
Institutional racism has shaped inequality with the help of cultural factors. People have become colorblind because of the success of some African-Americans. Oprah is the richest African-American in America but she ranks at number 221 of Forbes 2014 400 richest Americans with three billion dollars. (Forbes, 2014, 1) We also have an African-American in the highest office in the world, The White House. For some reason this has led to the belief that African- Americans are no longer struggling. For some reason when one succeeds that means we all have but that is so far from the truth. As Michelle Alexander puts it, “The fact that some African Americans have experienced great success in recent years does not mean that something akin to a racial caste system no longer exists. No caste system in the United States has ever governed all black people; there have always been ‘free blacks’ and black success stories, even during slavery and Jim Crow.” (Alexander, 2010, 21) There have been and always will be those African-Americans or people of any race who will reach the top but that doesn’t mean they take the whole race with them. There are also those African-Americans who conform to the ways of society. Everybody isn’t meant to go against the status quo. Everybody won’t see something wrong with playing by the rules though they will understand they’re being oppressed. “That reality helps to explain why African American leaders such as Booker T. Washington urged blacks to focus on improving themselves rather than on challenging racial discrimination. It is also why the Civil Rights Movement initially met significant resistance among some African Americans in the South.” (Alexander, 2010, 210-211) There has always been a divide between the African-American community but one thing we all can agree on is that there is something wrong and it needs to change. History

只要非裔美国人一直在努力争取平等,就存在某种阻碍种族进步的种族主义制度和文化因素。 “当很明显旧的种姓制度正在崩溃……一个新的种姓制度将取代它。” (Alexander,2010,22)历史表明,当任何少数人获得任何类型的权力时,多数人就会感到受到威胁。当非洲裔美国人拒绝遵守奴隶制时,他们决定采用黑人法典。设置黑码是为了限制自由的“有色人种”或至少拥有八分之一黑人血统的人。 《黑人法典》的民权版本允许有色人种“获得,拥有和处置财产;订立合同;享受劳动成果;起诉和起诉;并在法律上对其人身和财产给予保护。” (宪法权利基金会(Constitutional Rights Foundation),1865-1866,1p),但对他们可以结婚的对象进行了限制,“白人与有色人之间的婚姻是非法的和无效的。” (宪法权利基金会(Constitutional Rights Foundation),1865-1866,1p)他们提出了流浪法,以迫使解放者签署合同,规定他们可以被逮捕和监禁从事艰苦的工作,但是白人可以选择宣誓贫穷。学徒法令规定,如果流浪者和黑人儿童逃跑,但也要对其进食,穿衣,教养和上学,则应受到惩罚和逮捕。然后是法院针对犯罪制定的法律。所有涉及黑人原告或被告的民事和刑事案件,只有在案件影响到该人或其财产的情况下,才允许黑人证人进行。他们认为是解放者犯下的罪行被判处死刑,例如叛乱,纵火,入室盗窃和殴打白人妇女。轻微犯罪可能会引起鞭打或雇用。 (宪法权利基金会(Constitutional Rights Foundation),1865-1866,1p)之后,重建时代终结了黑人法典,非洲裔美国人开始再次进步。法律废除了奴隶制;非裔美国人被认为...
继续阅读

请加入StudyMode以阅读全文

您可能还会发现这些文档很有帮助

  • 制度种族主义论文
  • 机构种族主义随笔
  • 黑人,监狱和种族主义制度论文
    保罗 马森
  • 歧视:制度种族主义随笔
  • 机构种族主义随笔
  • 制度种族主义论文
  • 种族主义随笔
  • 制度种族主义及其对拉丁美洲学生的研究论文
保罗 马森

成为StudyMode会员

注册-免费
网站地图